Child Support Agency (CSA)

The Child Support Agency (CSA) is an executive agency of the Department for Work and Pensions, which is responsible for administering the system of child maintenance under which non-resident parents are required to pay towards the upbringing and support of their children.

Circumstantial Evidence

Circumstantial evidence is evidence that relies on an inference to connect it to a conclusion of fact—like a fingerprint at the scene of a crime. By contrast, direct evidence supports the truth of an assertion directly—i.e., without need for any additional evidence or inference.


The term Civil refers to matters concerning private rights and not offences against the state i.e. accidents, business, contracts, domestic relations, estates, negligence.

Civil Determination

Civil Determination – If the defendant offers to pay to the claimant an amount by instalments and the claimant refuses the offer, an officer of the court will make an assessment of what would be reasonable for the defendant to pay.

Civil Justice or Civil Law

Civil Justice or Civil Law is a branch of the law which applies to the rights and dealings of private citizens, (including such matters as unpaid debts, negligence and the enforcement of contracts). It does not include criminal, immigration, employment or family matters.

Civil Justice Reforms

Civil Justice Reforms are the result of the Access to Justice report by Lord Woolf. The aim is to provide more effective access to Justice through quicker, cheaper and more proportionate justice for defended cases. It introduced a unified set of Rules and Practice Directions for the County and High Courts, and Judicial Case Management.…